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Exploring the certainty of reciprocal relationship with outcome expectations in water conservation efforts among generation Y: social cognitive theory approach

Published Online:pp 108-123

Water conservation among each individual is a crucial factor for better living standard. Attitude and emotional factors with social cognitive behaviour will play an essential role for present and future generations. This empirical study was conducted in relation to generation Y in Kuala Lumpur metropolitan city, Malaysia. A sample size of 265 generation Y population was used with convenience sampling method in identifying their attitude and behaviour. The finding revealed that generation Y outcome expectancy has significant positive effect on water conservation. The outcome expectancy was predicted by environmental factors, personal factors and perceived self-efficacy. According to the model evaluation, the adjusted R2 was 0.78, which explains almost 78% of the variance in outcome expectancy in determining behaviour in water conservation among generation Y. In reciprocal identifications the variables were tested with correlation and all variables achieved positive strong correlation.


SCT, social cognitive theory, reciprocal determinism, water conservation, generation Y, behavioural practice