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Concept, experimental demonstration and numerical study of force-based hybrid simulation

Published Online:pp 4-24

Hybrid simulation is an advanced technique for dynamic analysis of structures, combining laboratory testing and numerical models. Many successful applications can be found in the studies for seismic analysis of structures. However, applications to the other hazards such as wind and tsunami have been very limited. One of the challenges is that the conventional hybrid simulation does not strictly ensure force equilibrium conditions at each time step, leaving unbalanced force error. In order to expand applications of hybrid simulation to various types of hazards, the unbalanced force has to be eliminated; it is because motion induced forces in aero and hydrodynamic loads have to be consistent with the structural deformation. This study proposes a force-based hybrid simulation to address the above challenge. The paper introduces a concept of force-based hybrid simulation and presents details of the force-based numerical integration algorithm. Following the description of the structural model and test setup, an experimental demonstration of the force-based hybrid simulation for a linear physical specimen is presented. Furthermore, numerical simulation using Bouc-Wen model is performed for an investigation of the applicability of the force-based hybrid simulation to nonlinear system.


force-based numerical algorithm, force-control, multi-hazard, dynamic of structure, hybrid simulation, substructuring technique