Skip to main content
No Access

Evaluation of RANS/actuator disk modelling of wind turbine wake flow using wind tunnel measurements

Published Online:pp 147-158https://doi.org/10.1504/IJESMS.2013.052382

Wake modelling plays a central role in wind farm planning through the evaluation of losses, the prediction of the energy yield, and the estimation of turbine loads. These models must be reasonably accurate – to minimise financial risk – and yet economical so that many configurations can be tested within reasonable time. While many such models have been proposed, an especially attractive approach is based on the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with two-equation turbulence closure and an actuator disk representation of the rotor. The validity of this approach and its inherent limitations however remain to be fully understood. To this end, detailed wind tunnel measurements in the wake of a porous disk (with similar aerodynamic properties as a turbine rotor) immersed in a uniform flow are compared with the predictions of several closures. Agreement with measurements is found to be excellent for all models. This unexpected result seems to derive from a fundamental difference in the turbulent nature of the homogeneous wind tunnel flow and that of the atmospheric boundary layer.

Keywords

wind turbine wake, turbulence modelling, wind tunnel, computational fluid dynamics, actuator disk

References

  • 1. Ammara, I. , Leclerc, C. , Masson, C. (2002). ‘A viscous three-dimensional differential/actuator-disk method for the aerodynamic analysis of wind farms’. Transactions of the ASME – Journal of Solar Energy Engineering. 124, 4, 345-356 Google Scholar
  • 2. Aubrun, S. , Devinant, p. , Espana, G. (2007). ‘Physical modelling of the far wake from wind turbines. application to wind turbine interactions’. in Proceedings of EWEC 2007. EWEA, Milan, Italy Google Scholar
  • 3. Comte-Bellot, G. , Corrsin, S. (1966). ‘The use of a contraction to improve the isotropy of grid-generated turbulence’. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 25, 4, 657-682 Google Scholar
  • 4. Crespo, A. , Hernandez, J. , Frandsen, S. (1999). ‘Survey of modelling methods for wind turbine wakes and wind farms’. Wind Energy. 2, 1, 1-24 Google Scholar
  • 5. El Kasmi, A. , Masson, C. (2008). ‘An extended k − ε model for turbulent flow through horizontal-axis wind turbines’. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. 96, 1, 103-122 Google Scholar
  • 6. Espana, G. (2009). Étude exp_erimentale du sillage lointain des éoliennes à axe horizontal au moyeu d’une modélisation simplifiée en couche limite atmosphérique. Université d’Orléans, phD thesis Google Scholar
  • 7. Jones, W. , Launder, B. (1972). ‘The prediction of laminarization with a two-equation model of turbulence’. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 15, 2, 301-314 Google Scholar
  • 8. Leclerc, C. (1998). Simulation numérique de l’écoulement tridimensionnel turbulent dans un parc éolien. École Polytechnique de Montréal, Masters thesis Google Scholar
  • 9. Leonard, B. (1979). ‘A stable and accurate convective modelling procedure based on quadratic upstream interpolation’. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering. 19, 1, 59-98 Google Scholar
  • 10. Mikkelsen, R. (2003). Actuator Disc Methods Applied to Wind Turbines. Technical University of Denmark, PhD thesis Google Scholar
  • 11. OpenCFD (2009). OpenFOAM: The Open Source CFD Toolbox – User Guide v1.6. Google Scholar
  • 12. Patankar, S. (1980). Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. New York:Hemisphere Publishing Corporation Google Scholar
  • 13. Pope, S. (2008). Turbulent Flows. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press Google Scholar
  • 14. Réthoré, P-E. (2009). Wind Turbine Wake in Atmospheric Turbulence. Aalborg University, PhD thesis Google Scholar
  • 15. Sanderse, B. , van der Pijl, S. , Koren, B. (2011). ‘Review of computational fluid dynamics for wind turbine wake aerodynamics’. Wind Energy. 14, 7, Google Scholar
  • 16. Snyder, W. (1981). Guideline for Fluid Modelling of Atmospheric Diffusion. US Environment Protection Agency, EPA-600/8-81-009 Google Scholar
  • 17. VDI (2000). ‘Physical modelling of flow and dispersion processes in the atmospheric boundary layer, application to wind tunnels’. Beuth Verlag, VDI Guideline 3783/12 Google Scholar
  • 18. Vermeer, L. , Sørensen, J. , Crespo, A. (2003). ‘Wind turbine wake aerodynamics’. Progress in Aerospace Sciences. 39, 6–7, 467-510 Google Scholar
  • 19. Wilcox, D. (1998). Turbulence Modeling for CFD. La Canada:DWC Industries Google Scholar
  • 20. Yakhot, V. , Orszag, S.A. (1986). ‘Renormalization group analysis of turbulence. I. Basic theory’. Journal of Scientific Computing. 1, 1, 3-51 Google Scholar
  • 21. Yakhot, V. , Smith, L. (1992). ‘The renormalization group, the ε-expansion and derivation of turbulence models’. Journal of Scientific Computing. 7, 1, 35-61 Google Scholar