Skip to main content
No Access

High resolution maps of nitrogen dioxide for the Province of Styria, Austria

Published Online:pp 137-146https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEP.2014.065114

Knowledge about the spatial distribution of NO2 concentrations is beneficial for setting up air quality measurement plans, assessing exposure, or in licensing procedures, where background concentration levels are required. Styria (16.400 km², 1.2 million population) is the second largest province in Austria. In order to take topographical effects on the pollutant dispersion into account, wind field libraries have been computed using the prognostic non-hydrostatic model GRAMM. Local observations of wind speed, direction and estimated stability classes have been used as meteorological input. Subsequently, quasi steady state wind fields have been computed and stored for later use in dispersion modelling utilising the Lagrangian particle model GRAL. In order to capture strong NO2 concentration gradients (e.g., near roads), 10 m horizontal grid spacing was used in dispersion calculations. Building effects on dispersion have been taken into account by applying a simple mass-conservative diagnostic flow field model implemented in GRAL.

Keywords

Graz Lagrangian model, GRAL, Graz mesoscale model, GRAMM, air quality map, Lagrangian particle model, nitrogen dioxide, wind field libraries, Austria

References

  • 1. Almbauer, R.A. , Oettl, D. , Bacher, M. , Sturm, P.J. (2000a). ‘Simulation of the air quality during a field study for the city of Graz’. Atmospheric Environment. 34, 27, 4581-4594 Google Scholar
  • 2. Almbauer, R.A. , Piringer, M. , Baumann, K. , Öttl, D. , Sturm, P.J. (2000b). ‘Analysis of the daily variations of wintertime air pollution concentrations in the city of Graz-Austria’. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 65, 1/2, 79-87 Google Scholar
  • 3. Anfossi, D. , Desiato, F. , Tinarelli, G. , Brusasca, G. , Ferrero, E. , Sacchetti, D. (1998). ‘TRANSALP 1989 experimental campaign – Part II: simulation of a tracer experiment with Lagrangian particle models’. Atmospheric Environment. 32, 7, 1157-1166 Google Scholar
  • 4. Anfossi, D. , Tinarelli, G. , Trini Castelli, S. , Ferrero, E. , Oettl, D. , Degrazia, G.A. , Mortarini, L. (2010). ‘Well mixed condition verification in windy and low wind speed conditions’. Int. J. Environment and Pollution. 40, 1/2/3, 49-61 AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • 5. Bianco, L. , Tomassetti, B. , Coppola, E. , Fracassi, A. , Verdecchia, M. , Visconti, G. (2006). ‘Thermally driven circulation in a region of complex topography: comparison of wind-profiling radar measurements and MM5 numerical predictions’. Annales Geophysicae. 24, 6, 1537-1549 Google Scholar
  • 6. Carvalho, J.C. , Anfossi, D. , Trini Castelli, S. , Degrazia, G.A. (2002). ‘Application of a model system for the study of transport and diffusion in complex terrain to the TRACT experiment’. Atmospheric Environment. 36, 7, 1147-1161 Google Scholar
  • 7. (2012). (accessed 3 April 2014) Forum for Air Quality Modelling in Europe FAIRMODE Final recommendations from FAIRMODE to the review of the EU Air Quality Policy [online] http://fairmode.ew.eea.europa.eu/guidance-use-models-wg1/directive-revision/fairmode-recomm_final.docx Google Scholar
  • 8. Finardi, S. , Brusasca, G. , Calori, G. , Nanni, A. , Tinarelli, G. , Agnesod, G. , Pession, G. , Zublena, M. (2002). ‘Integrated air quality assessment of an alpine region: evaluation of the Mont Blanc tunnel re-opening effects’. 8th Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes, 14–17 October, Sofia, 404-408 Google Scholar
  • 9. Gehrig, R. , Hill, M. , Buchmann, B. , Imhof, D. , Weingartner, E. , Baltensperger, U. ‘Verifikation von PM10-Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs’. Abschlussbericht der Eidgenössischen Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt (EMPA) und des Paul Scherrer Institutes (PSI) zum Forschungsprojekt ASTRA 2000/415. 2003, 07, [online] www.empa.ch Google Scholar
  • 10. Hanna, S.R. , Cheremisinoff, P.N. (1989). ‘Plume dispersion and concentration fluctuations in the atmosphere’. Encyclopaedia of Environmental Control Technology. 2, Houston, Texas:Gulf Publishing Co. , Air Pollution Control Google Scholar
  • 11. Hasel, M. , Nielinger, J. , Kost, W-J. (2009). ‘Ausbreitungsrechnung in steilem Gelände – Prognostsiche Windfeldbibliotheken’. Fachausschuss Umweltmeteorologie – METTOOLS VII. Hamburg, 1.-3.9.2009 Google Scholar
  • 12. Horvath, K. , Koracin, D. , Vellore, R. , Jiang, J. , Belu, R. (2012). ‘Sub-kilometer dynamical downscaling of near-surface winds in complex terrain using WRF and MM5 mesoscale models’. J. Geophys. Res.. 117, D11, 1-19, 10.1029/2012JD017432 Google Scholar
  • 13. Ketzel, M. , Omstedt, G. , Johansson, Ch. , Düring, I. , Pohjola, M. , Oettl, D. , Gidhagen, L. , Wåhlin, P. , Lohmeyer, A. , Haakana, M. , Berkowicz, R. (2007). ‘Estimation and validation of PM2.5/PM10 exhaust and non-exhaust emission factors for practical street pollution modelling’. Atmospheric Environment. 41, 40, 9370-9385 Google Scholar
  • 14. Nanni, A. , Brusasca, G. , Calori, G. , Finardi, S. , Silibello, C. , Tinarelli, G. , Zublena, M. , Agnesod, G. , Pession, G. , Savoye, M. (2002). ‘Integrated assessment of traffic impact in an Alpine region’. Seventh Highway & Urban Pollution Symposium, 20–23 May, Barcelona Google Scholar
  • 15. Oettl, D. (2000). Weiterentwicklung, Validierung und Anwendung eines Mesoskaligen Modells. Institut für Geographie Universität Graz, 155, Diss. Google Scholar
  • 16. Oettl, D. (2013). Documentation of the Lagrangian Particle Model GRAL (Graz Lagrangian Model) Vs. 13.3. (accessed 3 April 2014), Amt d. Stmk. Landesregierung, Abt.15 Wohnbau, Energie und Technik , Report: Lu-03-13, [online] http://app.luis.steiermark.at/berichte/Download/Fachberichte/Lu_03_13_GRAL_Documentation.pdf 108 pp Google Scholar
  • 17. Oettl, D. , Almbauer, R.A. , Sturm, P.J. , Piringer, M. , Baumann, K. (2000). ‘Analysing the nocturnal wind field in the city of Graz’. Atmospheric Environment. 35, 2, 379-387 Google Scholar
  • 18. Oettl, D. , Hausberger, S. , Rexeis, M. , Sturm, P.J. (2006). ‘Simulation of traffic induced NOx-concentrations near the A 12 highway in Austria’. Atmospheric Environment. 40, 31, 6043-6052 Google Scholar
  • 19. Oettl, D. , Sturm, P.J. , Bacher, M. , Pretterhofer, G. , Almbauer, R.A. (2002). ‘A simple model for the dispersion of pollutants from a road tunnel portal’. Atmospheric Environment. 36, 18, 2943-2953 Google Scholar
  • 20. Oettl, D. , Sturm, P.J. , Pretterhofer, G. , Bacher, M. , Rodler, J. , Almbauer, R.A. (2003). ‘Lagrangian dispersion modeling of vehicular emissions from a highway in complex terrain’. J. of the Air and Waste Management Association. 53, 10, 1233-1240 Google Scholar
  • 21. Rexeis, M. , Hausberger, S. (2005). ‘Calculation of vehicle emissions in road networks with the model ‘NEMO’. Transport & Air Pollution Conference, Graz, ISBN: 3-902465-16-6 Google Scholar
  • 22. Schluenzen, K.H. (1997). ‘On the validation of high-resolution atmospheric mesoscale models’. J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. 67–68, 479-492 Google Scholar
  • 23. Smet, P. , Leeuw, F. , Horálek, J. , Kurfürst, P. (2013). European Compilation of National Air Quality Maps Based on Modelling. (accessed 3 April 2014) , ETC/ACM Technical Paper 2013/3, [online] http://acm.eionet.europa.eu/ 76 pp Google Scholar
  • 24. Thunis, P. , Galmarini, S. , Martilli, A. , Clappier, A. , Andronopoulos, S. , Bartzis, J. , Vlachogianni, M. , de Ridder, K. , Moussiopoulos, N. , Sahm, P. , Almbauer, R. , Sturm, P. , Oettl, D. , Dierer, S. , Schluenzen, H. (2003). ‘MESOCOM An inter-comparison exercise of mesoscale flow models applied to an ideal case simulation’. Atmospheric Environment. 37, 3, 363-382 Google Scholar
  • 25. Thunis, P. , Pederzoli, A. , Georgieva, E. , Cuvelier, C. , Pernigotti, D. (2013). DELTA Version 3, User’s Guide. Ispra:Joint Research Centre 55 pp Google Scholar
  • 26. Tinarelli, G. , Anfossi, D. , Bider, M. , Ferrero, E. , Trini Castelli, S. , Gryning, S.E. Batchvarova, E. (2000). ‘A new high performance version of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model SPRAY, some case studies’. Air Pollution Modelling and its Applications XIII. New York:Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press , 499-507 Google Scholar
  • 27. Trini Castelli, S. , Anfossi, D. , Ferrero, E. (2003). ‘Evaluation of the environmental impact of two different heating scenarios in urban area’. Int. J. Environment and Pollution. 20, 4, 207-217 Google Scholar
  • 28. Trini Castelli, S. , Morelli, S. , Anfossi, D. , Carvalho, J. , Zauli Sajani, S. (2004). ‘Intercomparison of two models, ETA and RAMS, with TRACT field campaign data’. Environmental Fluid Mechanics. 4, 2, 157-196 Google Scholar